The glaucoma is an eye condition that affects the optic nerve.
–Chronic open angle glaucoma (90% of the cases) is related to the increase of the internal pressure of the eye due to an inadequate flow of the ocular liquid (aqueous humor). This condition causes a progressive and painless alteration of the visual field.
Since it generally increases its frequency with age, glaucoma needs to be screened systematically.
The screening consists of measuring the intra-ocular pression and an examination of the optic nerve. Other ancillary examinations may be needed such as: visual fields, pachymetry (measurement of the thickness of the cornea), optic nerve OCT (study of the fibres of the optic nerve).
Glaucoma treatment can consist of eye drops, laser or surgery.
–Closed angle glaucoma (10% of the cases) is related to the sudden rise of the intra-ocular pressure which manifests itself as a sudden and painful loss of vision. To treat this acute condition you may need hospitalisation.
There are different eye drops that can be used to reduce the intra-ocular pressure in order to prevent damage to the optic nerve. Sometimes a treatment with laser or surgery may be necessary.